Post Graduate Certificate Courses

Post Graduate Certificate in Ultrasound for Internal Medicine

Over 3 semesters, the program covers the Fundamentals of Ultrasound scanning and 6 essential modalities encountered in Internal Medicine including:

  1. Core ECHO and IVC
  2. Intermediate ECHO
  3. Lung
  4. Focused Assessment for Free Fluid (FAFF)
  5. US guided Vascular Access and Interventional (USGVAI)
  6. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)

Key Information

Course Duration:

9-10 months

The Notch Conference Center, Kappara

Generic Information

• Limited to 10 candidates per course for effective mentorship
• Blend of online lectures/webinars and in-person practice
• Segmented online lectures aid self-paced learning
• Online portal for resources, mentor interaction, and submissions
• Each candidate is assigned an experienced mentor for year-long guidance
• Facilitation of access to practice machines
• 6-8 in-person intensive practice days per course
• Mandatory practice logbook with scans and pathologies
• Final exam with practical and theoretical elements for course completion.

Learning Outcomes

At the end of the course the candidate should be able to:

•  Appreciate the fundamental physics principles relating to ultrasound including the piezoelectric effect, the factors that influence imaging as well as the recognition and differentiation of various artefacts
•  Recognise the importance of frequency and the way it impacts probe selection and machine settings
•  Understand and utilise the proper terms to annotate images and report scans
•  Utilise the various functions on US machines to optimise the scan
•  Hold and manipulate the probe effectively being mindful of ergonomics

•  Recognise the value of the various cardiac views in evaluating different cardiac structures
•  Define the sonoanatomy and recognise the cardiac structures in all cardiac views
•  Understand the changes in the cardiac chambers and valves during the cardiac cycle
•  Define the normal upper limits for diameters and ratio of the cardiac structures
•  Define the normal parameters for LV contractility
•  Acquire parasternal long and short axis, as well as subcostal views of the heart
•  Utilise a structured approach to optimise the various cardiac views and recognise the impact of specific movements on the cardiac appearance
•  Adopt the DEFG structured diagnostic approach to the evaluation of cardiac dimensions and function
•  Diagnose dilated aorta in dissection, dilated LA and dilated cardiomyopathy
•  Evaluate the systolic function/contractility to diagnose heart failure with reduced ejection fraction
•  Identify pericardial effusions and recognise tamponade physiology
•  Evidence base for IVC scanning
•  Understand the impact of respiratory physiology on the IVC
•  Identify and correctly measure the IVC
•  Define the maximal diameter and collapsibility index of the IVC in normovolemia and hypovolemia
•  Identify which patients will benefit from fluid administration in cases of hypotension and shock
•  Clarify when to transition to inotropes in shock cases
•  Recognise the limitations of IVC scanning and the impact of raised pulmonary pressures on its use
•  Issue a report

•  Perform the apical 4 and 2 chamber view
•  Define the sonoanatomy and recognise the cardiac structures in these cardiac views
•  Adopt the DEFG approach to further evaluate the cardiac structure and function
•  Identify and grade left ventricular hypertrophy and recognise cardiomyopathy
•  Identify anatomical features suggestive of diastolic dysfunction
•  Use Fractional Shortening to estimate the systolic function
•  Appreciate the vascular supply of the different regions of the myocardium
•  Identify the different regions of the heart on the different views
•  Identify regional wall motion abnormalities
•  Appreciate the normal and abnormal sonoanatomy of cardiac valves
•  Diagnose and grade specific valve pathology using colour flow doppler

•  Evidence base for lung ultrasound
•  Anatomy and sonoanatomy of the lung
•  12 zone evaluation of the lungs
•  Use a structured approach for the evaluation of each lung zone
•  Appreciate the sonographic appearances of various pathologies
•  Integrate the findings with the clinical context to assist diagnosis

•  Appreciate the anatomy and sonoanatomy of 4 anatomical spaces which will be interrogated for free fluid including the right and left pleural spaces, peritoneum and pericardium
•  Evaluate the right and left pleural space, peritoneum and pericardium for the presence of free fluid using 4 views: right and left flank, suprapubic and subcostal
•  Identify the presence of free fluid in these spaces to diagnose pleural and pericardial effusions as well as ascites
•  Understand the indications, sensitivity and limitations of FAFF scanning
•  Recognise when to refer for further imaging.
•  Apply techniques to minimise operator variability and improve the comprehensiveness of the scan
•  Issue a report

•  Recognize the evidence base underpinning the use of US in interventional procedures vs a landmark approach
•  Infection control measures and sterility
•  Evaluate the venous anatomy of the upper limb venous system using ultrasound
•  Assess vein suitability using the WASPS approach
•  Differentiate veins, arteries, nerves, muscles and tendons
•  Optimising probe alignment for intervention
•  Utilise in-plane and out-of-plane approaches for guided vascular access and interventions such as aspiration
•  Use ultrasound to confirm successful cannulation

•  Define the lower limb venous anatomy
•  Differentiate veins from arteries
•  Recognise thrombus within the deep veins of the lower limb and differentiate it from other pathologies with a similar clinical presentation
•  Understand how to integrate US scanning in the clinical algorithm for DVT
•  Appreciate the limitations of US scanning for DVT and when to refer to radiology
•  Perform an ultrasound scan of the lower limb to identify deep venous thrombosis in the proximal deep veins
•  Recognise alternative pathologies presenting with LL pain including superficial thrombophlebitis, Baker’s cyst and muscular hematomas
•  Issue a report

Terms & Conditions
Refund Policy
If a refund request is received more than 28 days before the start of the course, a full refund will be issued. If a refund request is received 14 to 28 days before the start of the course, the payment will be kept towards a future course of the candidate’s choosing. Refund requests submitted less than 14 days before the start of a course will not be accepted.